Tag Archives: Isky

A Tale Of Two 330 Inch Y-Blocks

I recently had the opportunity to assemble a pair of Ford Y-Block engines that were very similar to each other and then dyno test each.  Both engines had the same bore and stroke, the same camshaft grind, and the final static compression ratio (SCR) on each was very similar.  The main differences were in the cylinder heads and intake manifolds.  While one engine was slated for use in a standard transmission equipped ’54 Ford car for both street driving and some spirited road racing, the other was to be used in a ’56 Ford pickup as a daily driver with air conditioning and an automatic transmission.  The road race engine is using ported oem iron ‘G’ heads while a set of Mummert aluminum heads are used on the daily driver pickup engine.

Each engine required a camshaft that would be very drivable in stop and go traffic.  For this, the same part number Iskenderian camshafts are used with the duration at 0.050” being 228°/238° on the intakes & exhausts respectively.  The advertised duration is 260°/272° while the lift at the valves with 1.6 rockers is .477”/.512”.  The split duration format is being used for a variety of reasons including the use of full exhaust systems, better low rpm intake manifold vacuum, and improved torque characteristics in the lower rpm band.  The camshafts are ground on 110° lobe centers and both are installed 3° advanced or at 107° intake lobe centerline.

Rollmaster timing sets are used and also common to both engines are Harland Sharp 1.6:1 roller tipped rockers.  MSD p/n #8383 MSD billet distributors are responsible for routing the fire to the spark plugs.  Both blocks have a machined groove added behind the center cam bearing to alleviate the potential for any future top end oiling problems.  Two extra 5/16” holes are added to the oil filter plates to insure adequate flow capacity from the oil pump to the oil filter.  Other than this pair of modifications, the block oiling systems remain virtually as delivered from Ford.  The aluminum rocker arms are using pressurized oil with the factory overflow tubes being eliminated.  Rocker to shaft clearance is set at 0.002”.

Both engines use 312 crankshafts where the main journals are reground to a standard 292 size.  The rear seal journals are also reground to the 292 sizes while retaining the rear main seal crankshaft oil slingers.  The rod journals are offset ground to a 3.580” stroke utilizing 2.000” journals.  Because both crankshafts had been previously reground undersize, the maximum amount of stroke that would normally be available with standard size rod journal cranks was not available.  The connecting rods are manufactured by Eagle and incorporate 6.125” center to center lengths.  While the pickup engine uses a rebuilt factory style harmonic damper, the car engine uses one of the new Innovators West harmonic dampers.  Both engines have some overbalance added to the crankshafts during the balancing procedure.

The bore sizes are 3.832” and the wrist pin compression height on the pistons is also the same being 1.830”.  The piston tops do vary though due to the differences inthe combustion chambers on the cylinder heads being used.  Because both engines are being targeted to use readily available 91-93 octane premium pump gasoline, the dynamic compression ratio (DCR) is being limited to 8.0:1.  That meant to use the Mummert aluminum cylinder heads, the piston for that combination would require a 8cc dish netting a final static compression ratio of 9.7:1.  The pistons for the iron headed engine would be a conventional flat top piston and would end up being 9.5:1 for the SCR.  The selected piston rings for both engines are manufactured by Total Seal and and are conventional in design while being 1.5mm for the top and second grooves and 3.0mm for the oil ring.

 

 

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The iron headed engine for the 1954 Ford uses a pair of ‘posted’ ECZ-G cylinder heads.  These had hardened exhaust seats suitable for unleaded fuels installed before going to the porting table.  Along with the new stock diameter valves, Isky beehive valve springs and retainers are also installed.  The closed valve spring pressure is 130 lbs while over the nose or open pressure is 295 lbs.  Final combustion chamber volumes after milling are 68.9cc.  This set of heads would use a Mummert aluminum single four barrel intake.

The Mummert aluminum heads for the 1956 Ford pickup are stock out of the box pieces utilizing the ‘as supplied’ valve springs and hardware.  The closed spring pressure is 110 lbs while open pressure is 300 lbs.  The intake manifold for this engine would be an older model Blue Thunder single four barrel intake.  There was no need for the heat riser passage in the intake to be blocked off due to the heat passages in the heads not being opened up.  ARP 7/16” head bolts are used to fasten the heads to the block on both engines.

Before decking the blocks, the steam holes were drilled, tapped and plugged.  Because neither set of heads has steam holes and both vehicles have high radiator fill points, the steam holes in the block are not required.  Plugging the holes also helps to strengthen the blocks in that area.

The oil pans do vary on each engine but simply due to the differences in the vehicles in which they are going in.  The ’54 car uses a front sump pan that is modified for additional oil capacity while the ’56 pickup uses a rear sump pan that has had a gate put into it to stop the forward slosh of the oil during braking.  The oil pumps for both engines are rebuilt gerotor pumps.  These were chosen over new casting spur gear pumps as the georotor design has fewer cavitation issues along with less heat transfer into the oil itself.  There are enough differences in oil pump design for its own article which is being saved for later.

The engines are started up using a full complement of Valvoline 10W-40 oil and Wix oil filters.  No extra additives are used as this particular oil has the required levels of zinc & phosphate (ZDDP) for the older flat tappet camshafts.  The camshafts and lifters however were thoroughly lubed with the Isky supplied molybdenum lube during the engine assembly which takes care of the initial lubrication requirements during startup.  While the camshaft is being broken in, the water brake on the dyno is repeatedly loaded and unloaded so that the piston rings can be seated in during the same time frame.  Once this operation has been completed, the engines are allowed to thoroughly cool to help put a completed heat cycle into the valve springs.  This single operation significantly prolongs the life of the valve springs versus going straight into dyno pulls without a cooling cycle.

Both engines were started up with a known ‘good’ carburetor and in this case it’s a 750 cfm vacuum secondary Holley.  The road race engine does gets a 600 cfm vacuum secondary Holley that’s heavily modified by lieu of the rules for one of the racing venues requiring nothing larger than a rated 600 cfm carburetor.  That 600 carb actually outperforms the 750 carb in this rare case on both ends of the rpm scale and that is in part attributed to the superior work that was done to the carb metering circuits rather than the rated cfm difference.  The aluminum headed engine had a 600 cfm double pumper carb available for testing and while it had excellent lowend dyno numbers, the 750 carb had better higher rpm numbers.

 

 

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The differences in power output between the two engines primarily rests with the cylinder heads.  The ported iron heads peaked at 361 HP while the stock out of the box aluminum heads peaked at 404 HP.  I’ve included dyno sheets for both engines and in this particular instance also supply sheets showing the performance differences between the carbs that were used.  As a general rule, the smaller sized carbs will help low end torque values while the larger sized carbs help topend horsepower.  As with any generalized rules, there are exceptions.

All for now and until next time, happy Y motoring.  Ted Eaton.

 

 

Click on images for larger pictures.

Originally published in Y-Block Magazine, Issue #111, Jul-Aug 2012, Vol 19, No.4

Blueprinting for an eight second Y-Block

Like any engine that’s in its planning stages, particular care must be paid to that engines intended use in  order to select the correct parts and maintain those clearances that would be considered optimal for that combination.  In the case of the blown engine for Randy Gummelt’s rear engine dragster, I’ve already covered some of the parts selection as well as the main support girdle construction in previous articles.  At this point, I’ll cover in more detail some of the specific clearances and specialized machine work that was required to make Randy’s engine a reality.

 

The C2AE-C block was rough bored to 3.797” and the main journals align honed so that the engine could be initially dry assembled.  The rotating assembly was installed within the block without piston rings which allowed for some preliminary measurements to be made and in particular, connecting rod to camshaft clearance and determine how much would be required to remove from the deck surfaces to obtain the desired piston to deck clearance.  Used bearings were installed on the crankshaft at this stage to prevent any potential damage to the new bearings.  There are no deep pockets in this operation so saving a buck where possible is always a consideration.  Upon removing the rotating assembly from the block, the head bolt holes in the block are drilled and retapped to ½” X 13 and the cylinder bores are notched at the intake valve locations to both aid flow and increase valve to cylinder wall clearance in this area.  Care is taken to insure that the cylinder wall reliefs do not protrude into the top ring area when the piston is at top dead center.  The block is now ready to go back to the machine shop for final cylinder wall honing and block decking. All the hardcore machine work on the block including align honing the mains was performed by Lonnie Putnam in Gatesville, Texas.

 

The Moldex steel crankshaft is fully counterweighted which alleviates some of the balancing issues that comes from using heavier connecting rods and piston combinations as well as potentially reducing some of the crankshaft flex that can be associated with high horsepower and/or high rpm applications.  The crankshaft was balanced using a 2015 gram bobweight value which includes a calculated amount of ‘over balance’ to compensate for the blower application on this engine.  As a point of reference, a typical bobweight value for a normally aspirated stock Y-Block rebuild will fall in the 1960-2050 gram range.

 

The Eagle H-Beam connecting rods are an off the shelf item that are 6.125” long and specific for a 2.000” journal and work with the 0.927″ pins being used in the pistons.  These were surprisingly quite economical and should be considered viable options in even a moderate performance build up as opposed to just reworking stock rods.  The rods did however require some modification at the top of the rod bolt area in order to clear the camshaft adequately and this is a result of just pushing the stroke out to 3.800”.  Although only a pair of the connecting rods would have required specific modification for adequate camshaft lobe clearance under a normal camshaft timing event scenario, all eight rods were clearanced in the event of a catastrophic failure in the cam drive.  Minimum connecting rod clearance to the camshaft was targeted for 0.050”.

 

The Wiseco pistons are machined for 1/16” rings in both the first and second grooves while the oil groove is the common 3/16” size.  The top ring is also spaced 0.330” down from the piston top instead of the more typical 0.250” spacing.  The rings are provided by Total Seal and have a gapless style top ring which was deemed a necessity considering the supercharged nature of the engine.  The main thought process here is to minimize the amount of alcohol that’s ‘blown’ past the pistons and into the crankcase.  Of lesser consequence but still worth considering is that gapless rings also minimize the amount of leakage that’s created by cylinder wall wear which equates to 0.00314” of additional ring gap for each 0.001” of cylinder wall wear in a standard production ring set.  Unlikely that this engine will ever see enough service to make cylinder wall wear and the effect on ring end gap significant, but is a factor regardless.

The Iskenderian camshaft is a custom grind and is designed specifically for this combination.  The lobes are placed on 114° centers while the intake/exhaust durations at 0.050” are 254° and 260° respectively.  Intake and exhaust lobe lifts are 0.350”/0.346” which provides 0.560”/0.554” intake/exhaust lifts at the valve before taking valve lash into account.  Dove Manufacturing 1.6:1 aluminum roller rockers are utilized with the rocker stands being altered in height in order to optimize the valve train geometry.  Isky 3/8” tubular pushrods connect the lifters to the rockers.  A Rollmaster timing set spins the camshaft and is 0.008” shorter than standard in order to bring the slack in the chain to the preferred deflection value of 0.180” or less.  Because the crankshaft snout diameter was increased to 1.600”, the crank timing gear was bored and honed for the proper fit and a new keyway slot for cam timing purposes was broached back into the gear.  The camshaft was installed at 112½° intake lobe centerline or 1½° advanced.

 

The ‘113’ heads were obtained from John Mummert who also took care of the required porting work.  Valve to piston clearances were checked during dry assembly and these measured out at 0.155” on the intakes and 0.210” on the exhaust before taking into account the head gasket thickness and valve lash values.  This was more than enough clearance and most of the excess in clearance could be attributed to the deep dish in the pistons.  While the heads were apart, the head bolt holes are redrilled with a 17/32” drill bit in which to accommodate the larger than stock ½” head bolts.  The ‘113’ heads require two different length head bolts on the top rows with the end bolts being longer than the center three.  To equalize combustion chamber volumes on both heads at 67cc’s, one head was milled 0.050” while the other was milled 0.055”.  Prior to final assembly on the heads, the gasket surface around each of the combustion chambers was machined by Don Chandler (Gatesville, Tx) for a groove that would hold a stainless steel sealing ring.  These wire rings work in tandem with the copper head gaskets being supplied by SCE that were 0.043” thick.  After setting the valve spring seat pressures to 135 lbs. (337 lbs ‘over the nose’ pressure), the cylinder heads are ready to be bolted in place using a custom set of ARP ½” head bolts and torqued to 110 ft/lbs.

 

A standard set of Clevite 77 main bearings (MS178P-STD) for a 272/292 engine are used with clearances being maintained at 0.0027”-0.0030”.  Clevite 77 rod bearings (CB663H-STD) keeps the connecting rods in their place with 0.0020”-0.0022” clearances.  Connecting rod side clearances were set at 0.022-0.024”.  Piston wall clearance is 0.0055” while ring end gaps for the Total Seal rings are maintained at 0.032” for the gapless top ring and 0.027” for the second ring.  The pistons themselves sit 0.010” in the hole when they are at top dead center.  Connecting rod bolts are torqued to 63 ft/lbs while the main caps are torqued to 75 ft/lbs.  The outer main girdle bolts at the pan rails are torqued to 18 ft/lbs.

Because the Enderle fuel pump for the injectors is mounted facing forward on the front of the marine timing cover, it required a special drive fixture to be located on the front of the camshaft and camshaft sprocket.  This involved more fabrication and ended up being a two piece affair which allows a hex drive to connect the camshaft to the pump.  The original tach drive location on the marine cover not only provides a location for bolting up the Enderle fuel pump directly in front of the camshaft, the marine cover also permits the blower drive at the crankshaft to be placed closer to the engine which in turn further reduces any flex or deflection on the crankshaft snout caused by the blower belt.

 

The one component on this engine that remains relatively stock is the oil pump.  The oil pump is a Dynagear P/N DM-42 which is a gerotor (gerorotor) style pump but utilizes a cast iron body instead of the aluminum body normally found on that same style of pump when offered by FoMoCo.  The pump was simply disassembled, checked for any flaws and clearances checked, and reassembled with the only modification being the addition of a 0.150” shim on the bypass spring in order to boost the cold start oil pressure.

 

Engine break-in was performed on an engine dyno so the engine could be appropriately loaded but was done so before actually installing the 6-71 roots style blower on the engine.  The break-in process was performed using standard carburetion rather than the blower setup; a Blue Thunder intake and a List #1850 600cfm Holley took care of this chore.  After break-in, a single dyno pull was made with the carb in place which peaked 321 HP @ the 5750 rpm cut off point.  Not too shabby for a 7½:1 compression ratio, being over cammed, and no carburetor or ignition timing adjustments.

The blower was then installed and subsequent dyno pulls were made.  Due to ignition constraints, the engine was cutting out (ignition breaking up) after 5500 rpms but still managed to make 642 HP (6000rpm) and 644 lbs torque (4750rpm) before the ignition problems would ultimately terminate the dyno session.  The ignition problems were eliminated when the engine was installed in the chassis by utilizing an MSD crank trigger ignition.

Although the engine is allowed to shift at 6500 rpms in the course of running it down the track, it has bumped the rpm limiter at 7800 rpms during the burnouts.  Teardown of the bottom end to check bearings after a number of quarter mile passes still had everything looking fresh and new even with the given amount of alcohol that was making its way into the pan.  So far, so good, and continues to make quarter mile passes with minimal problems.

 Originally published in Y-Block Magazine, Issue #76, SEPT-OCT 2006

Addendum:  As of this writing, the best et has been an 8.15 second pass at National Trails Dragway.  There have been a multitude of low eight second passes at Texas Motorplex in Ennis but all these have been with the tires breaking loose at mid track and the car just coasting thru the traps.  Even the addition of a wing did not help.  Final conclusion is that the chassis is simply too stiff along with the wheel base being too short for this combination.                           T.E.